devstack, CA_BUNDLE, requests and pip

In the SSL patches I’m working on for OpenStack in devstack I’m trying to move away relying on client-specific CA file options. There has been pushback from upstream projects on adding new options for every server -> server connection (e.g. glance -> cinder, glance ->  swift, etc).

The system CA bundle was working nicely until I stood up a new dev box. Suddenly I was seeing a bunch of SSL verification errors.

The problem turned out to be requests. I was using the pip-installed requests which uses its own CA bundle by default, rather than the Fedora python-requests package which uses the system bundle in /etc/pki/certs/ca-bundle.crt. The module contains this comment:

If you are packaging Requests, e.g., for a Linux distribution or a managed
environment, you can change the definition of where() to return a separately packaged CA bundle.

We return “/etc/pki/tls/certs/ca-bundle.crt” provided by the ca-certificates package.

So if you are having problems with trust, try installing the distro-specific package. It worked for me.


SSL endpoints for nova, glance and cinder

Continuing on the theme of adding SSL endpoints in OpenStack, lets do a few more. Note that I’m using native SSL here. It is believed that this will suffer from rather bad performance in production . You’ve been warned.

You are going to need to obtain a bunch of SSL server certificates for this to work. It is possible to use the same certificate for each service but it’s bad practice. In my case I’ve used my local IPA server to obtain the certificates, YMMV. Feel free to skip over the IPA parts. In order for this to work with IPA You need to enroll your system(s) with ipa-client-install.

I’m demonstrating this with a packstack installation using nova networking.

Before doing anything, I’d strongly recommend booting an image and ensuring that OpenStack is properly functioning.

Start by securing the Keystone endpoint.

Next add the CA to the global trust.

Let’s start with Cinder.

Create a certificate for us to use. IPA associates a certificate with a service, so we’ll create a service in IPA to store the certificate:

# kinit admin
# ipa service-add cinder/
# ipa-getcert request -f /etc/pki/tls/certs/cinder.crt -k /etc/pki/tls/private/cinder.key -K cinder/

Either way you get the certificate, make sure the cinder use can read the certificate and keys:

# chown cinder /etc/pki/tls/certs/cinder.crt
# chown cinder /etc/pki/tls/private/cinder.key

Find the cinder service endpoints, there will be two. One for the v1 API and one for the v2 API:

# keystone endpoint-list|grep 8776

Delete the existing endpoints:

# keystone endpoint-delete <id>
# keystone endpoint-delete <id>

Now re-create the endpoints using the system FQDN and https:

# keystone endpoint-create --publicurl "" --adminurl "" --internalurl "" --service cinder_v2
# keystone endpoint-create --publicurl "" --adminurl "" --internalurl "" --service cinder

Edit /etc/cinder/cinder.conf to add the SSL options.

ssl_cert_file = /etc/pki/tls/certs/cinder.crt
ssl_key_file = /etc/pki/tls/private/cinder.key

Restart the Cinder API service:

# service openstack-cinder-api restart

Edit /etc/nova/nova.conf to tell it how to talk to Cinder:

cinder_endpoint_template =

Restart the Nova API:

# service openstack-nova-api restart

Test to be sure things still work:

# cinder list
# nova volume-list

Now we move onto the Glance service.

Get a certificate from IPA:

# ipa service-add glance/
# ipa-getcert request -f /etc/pki/tls/certs/glance.crt -k /etc/pki/tls/private/glance.key -K glance/

Fix the permissions on the certificate and key files:

# chown glance /etc/pki/tls/certs/glance.crt
# chown glance /etc/pki/tls/private/glance.key

Find and delete the glance endpoint:

# keystone endpoint-list |grep 9292
# keystone endpoint-delete <id>

And add back the endpoint using the FQDN and https:

# keystone endpoint-create --publicurl --internalurl --adminurl --service glance

Edit /etc/glance/glance-api.conf.

In [DEFAULT] add:

cert_file = /etc/pki/tls/certs/glance.crt
key_file = /etc/pki/tls/private/glance.key

Restart the Glance API service:

# service openstack-glance-api restart

And test that the Glance client works:

# glance image-list

Update Nova to tell it about the secure Glance API. Edit /etc/nova/nova.conf, in [DEFAULT]:


Restart the Nova API:

# service openstack-nova-api restart

And test that Nova can talk to Glance:

# nova image-list

Finally, secure the Nova service (just Nova for now, not EC2 or S3).

Get a certificate for Nova:

# ipa service-add nova/
# ipa-getcert request -f /etc/pki/tls/certs/nova.crt -k /etc/pki/tls/private/nova.key -K nova/

Fix the permissions:

# chown nova /etc/pki/tls/certs/nova.crt
# chown nova /etc/pki/tls/private/nova.key

Find and delete the nova endpoint:

# keystone endpoint-list|grep 8774
# keystone endpoint-delete <id>

Re-create the endpoint with the FQDN and https:

# keystone endpoint-create --publicurl "" --adminurl "" --internalurl "" --service nova

Edit nova.conf, in the [DEFAULT] section:


Restart the Nova API service:

# service openstack-nova-api restart

And finally, verify that Nova works:

# nova list

When I did this, just to be sure, I restarted the world:

# openstack-service restart

Up to this point we’ve only done some very basic validation of each service as we’ve secured them. Now for the real test, fire up a VM:

# nova boot --flavor <flavor> --image <image> ssltest

Make sure you got an address, the image came up, and you can ssh into it.

I’m working on adding this native SSL support, plus via a TLS Proxy, to devstack in bug

SSL CA in devstack

I’ve  been trying to configure devstack to install SSL-enabled endpoints. This is generally straightforward but hampered by a several bugs related to server to server communication (e.g. nova to glance) where the are no options to specify the location of the issuing CA.

One workaround I’m looking at is rather than passing the CA around as a path everywhere is to add it to the system CA bundle and let the client libraries handle things. This is less-than-ideal but seems to work. I’m a Fedora guy so I use the new CA trust commands:

# cp /path/to/cacert.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors


# cp /path/to/cacert.pem /usr/share/pki/ca-trust-source
# update-ca-trust extract
The difference between the directories is low or high priority to the CA trust tool. I’m honestly not entirely sure what that means, but the low priority version works for me.
Strangely I still need to specify the CA for some things. I haven’t yet figured that one out yet, but doing this I was able to get a vanilla OpenStack install via devstack with nova, keystone, glance and cinder secured with SSL.

Configure Keystone to use SSL in OpenStack

It is possible to convert an existing OpenStack installation to use SSL for Keystone and other services. I’ll tackle those later.

BEWARE: No Keystone == No OpenStack, so tread carefully as you can easily hose your installation.

In my case I installed OpenStack Havana using RDO on RHEL 6.5 I used packstack. I suspect that the configuration is largely similar to other versions as well:

# packstack --gen-answers-file=/root/answers.txt

In my case I modified answers.txt and set CONFIG_NEUTRON_INSTALL to n. I keep things rather simple in my environment.

Next i installed OpenStack using packstack:

# packstack --answer-file=/root/answers.txt

Go grab a cup of coffee, it takes a while to download and configure all the necessary bits.

Assuming you are following along at home, at this point I’d take the time to confirm that things are indeed working by launching a nova instance.

You need to start by figuring out which interface you are going to talk over. One was picked for you by packstack, that is probably the right one. I’m configuring a private cloud so I’m going to use the same name everywhere. If you are going to contact this over multiple interfaces you’ll need to look into getting a certificate with a Subject Alt Name, or taking the lazy way out and getting a wildcard cert.

In my case I’m doing a simple private cloud so I’m going to use the system FQDN, in my case I use vftool to simplify setting up hosts for testing.

So first you need to ensure that the system hostname is the FQDN:

# hostname

Now get a certificate for this hostname from your favorite source. I enrolled the machine into my IPA infrastructure and used ipa-getcert. In my case I put the result into /etc/pki/tls/certs/keystone.crt and /etc/pki/tls/private/keystone.key respectively. Be sure to set the ownership to keystone:

# chown keystone /etc/pki/tls/certs/keystone.crt
# chown keystone /etc/pki/tls/private/keystone.key

Now we’re ready to begin securing things. This is the tricky part. We need to create a new endpoint for SSL, delete the old one, then restart and things should work (see BEWARE above).

First we find the current keystone endpoint:

# keystone endpoint-list|grep 5000

Next we create a new one, using our FQDN:

# keystone endpoint-create --publicurl --internalurl --adminurl --service keystone

Delete the original endpoint:

# keystone endpoint-delete <endpoint-id>

Edit /etc/keystone/keystone.conf to add the SSL options. It should look like this:

enable = True
certfile = /etc/pki/tls/certs/keystone.crt
keyfile = /etc/pki/tls/private/keystone.key

Now restart the keystone service

# service openstack-keystone restart

Fix up the environment to match our new configuration:

# export export OS_AUTH_URL=
# export OS_CACERT=/path/to/ca.crt

And finally, test to be sure basic things work:

# keystone endpoint-list

Assuming that was successful we can move onto the other services. You can restart these individually afterwards but I just use openstack-service restart to restart the entire world after configuring all of the services.

Edit /etc/nova/nova.conf, it should look something like this:

auth_protocol = https
auth_port = 35357
auth_host =
auth_uri =
cafile = /path/to/ca.crt

Edit /etc/glance/glance-api.conf to look like:

auth_protocol = https
auth_port = 35357
auth_host =
auth_uri =
cafile = /path/to/ca.crt

Edit /etc/glance/glance-registry.conf to look like:

cafile = /etc/ipa/ca.crt

Edit /etc/cinder/cinder.conf to look like:


Edit /etc/cinder/api-paste.ini to look like:


Edit /etc/neutron/neutron.conf to look like this, but note that I installed without Neutron networking in my case so this is quite untested, but it follows the pattern:

auth_host =
auth_port = 35357
auth_protocol = https

Edit /etc/neutron/api-paste.ini


Edit /etc/neutron/metadata_agent.ini

auth_url =

Similarly I didn’t have anything stored in swift, but this should be correct.  Edit /etc/swift/proxy-server.conf

auth_host =
auth_port = 35357
auth_protocol = https
auth_uri =
cafile = /etc/ipa/ca.crt

And finally edit /etc/ceilometer/ceilometer.conf:

auth_port = 35357

Now restart the world and test things out:

# openstack-service restart
# openstack-status

In case you are unfamiliar with it, openstack-status will show the status of the current running services and do a whole lot of connection testing for you.

That’s basically it. I fired off a new nova instance to afterward to triple check as that exercises all sorts of services.

Finally, reconfigure Horizon to use the secure Keystone endpoint

Edit /etc/openstack-dashboard/local_settings:


Restart Apache

# service httpd restart

Frustrated rantings of a developer